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Green Mobile

Green Mobile

The Complete Guide to Vendor Strategies & Future Prospects 2014-2019

Publisher: Juniper Research
Date Published: 10/06/2014
Category: Handsets & Devices
No of Pages: 127
Coverage: Global ~ 8 key regions◊
 

Overview

•    Strategic Insights for Sustainability
•    Detailed Product Lifecycle Analysis
•    Emissions Forecasts by Device Type

The third edition of Juniper Research’s market-leading report on Green Mobile Devices provides extensive analysis of the environmental impact of device production and use, as well as strategies for improving product sustainability and how to leverage this as a marketable asset. It includes a detailed analysis of the impact at each production stage, from raw material extraction to disposal, as well as highlighting innovative environmentally-focused business models and phone design strategies.

It also provides extensive forecasts on emissions across all device types (smartphones, featurephones and tablets), providing projections for multiple industry scenarios. With over 50 tables and almost 2,000 unique data points detailing each stage of the lifecycle of these devices according to a variety of scenarios, it offers an unrivalled glimpse into the environmental future of the mobile industry, and what key players can do to enhance it. An accompanying IFxl (interactive forecast Excel) is also available offering a set of regional and sector analysis tools.

What this Report Covers

Industry Impacts & Sustainability Strategies

While most mobile device vendors have internalised sustainability drives for themselves, there is more that both they and other industry players can do to promote sustainability. This report discusses how different parts of the mobile value chain can be incorporated to enhance the environmental profile of devices. The report also discusses a series of industry-wide changes (from regulation to industry-led environmental initiatives) that could impact how mobile devices are manufactured and marketed.

Exclusive Device Lifecycle Forecast Suite

3 chapters of the report provide emissions forecasts for smartphones, featurephones and tablets up to 2019. These assess each stage of the production process for each device type, according to 3 scenarios: Conservative, Moderate and Transformational environmental initiatives. The forecasts also address consumer emissions from charging and no-load energy, as well as estimating the number of recycled devices and an expected baseline number of “green” devices that will be produced with recyclability in mind and minimal toxic materials.

Green Mobile IFxl 2014-2019

Juniper Research’s highly granular IFxls enable clients to manipulate Juniper’s forecast data and charts to test their own assumptions and compare select segments and scenarios side by side in customised charts and tables. IFxls greatly increase clients’ ability both to understand a particular market and to integrate their own views into the model.
The Green Mobile IFxl contains 160 tables and almost 12,000 unique data points, providing additional market data, including the full forecast methodology data and selected country-level forecasts for charging and no-load.

Table of Contents

Executive Summary
1. The Green Mobile Device Environment

1.1 Do Mobile Devices Cost the Earth?
1.2 Understanding ‘Green’
1.2.1 Quantifying the Impact
1.2 Green Inertia and Drivers for Change
1.3 The Grass is Always Greener…
1.3.1 Green Hurdles
Figure 1.1: Energy Consumption from Internet-Enabled Devices
1.3.2 Green Drivers

2. Lifecycle Analysis

2.1 Overview
Figure 2.1: 2013 Average GHG Emissions per Device (kg CO2e) During Supply Chain – Tablets, Smartphones and Featurephones
2.1.1 How Far Can LCAs Go?
i. Case Study: Fairphone
a. Vision, Origin and Design Strategy
Figure 2.2: Fairphone’s Roadmap to a Fairer Phone
b. Product Specifications
c. Supply Chain Engagement
d. Project Next Steps
2.2 Raw Materials
i. Case Study: Molycorp’s Mountain Pass Mining Facility
a. Corporate Profile
b. Mountain Pass facility, California
2.3 Component Manufacture and Device Assembly
2.3.1 Component Manufacture
i. Case Study: TSMC
a. Corporate Profile
b. Facilities Emissions and Waste
Figure 2.2: A summary of some of TSMC’s environmental KPIs
Figure 2.3: Environmental achievements and awards for TSMC’s GIGAFAB 12 complex
c. Supply Chain Engagement
2.4 Transportation
2.5 Consumer Use
2.5.1 Battery Life
2.5.2 The Cloud
2.6 Recycling
2.6.1 Designed for Death and Resurrection: The Beginning of Cradle to Cradle
i. Case Study: Project Ara
a. Vision, Origin and Design Strategy
Figure 2.4: Phonebloks concept graphic
b. Product Specifications
c. Juniper’s View: Ara Prospects and Industry Implications
2.7 Key Takeaways

3. Green Gatekeepers and Guides

3.1 Overview
3.2 MNOs: The Greener Gateway
3.2.1 Product Eco-ratings
i. The XKCD Problem: The Quest for a Single Rating
Figure 3.1: The Standards Problem
Table 3.1: Current MNO Eco-ratings’ GHG emissions assessment methods
Table 3.2: ITU’s Suggested ODM/OEM Baseline and Enhanced Performance Criteria for a Single Eco-Rating System
Table 3.3: ITU’s Suggested Supplier Baseline and Enhanced Performance Criteria for a Single Eco-Rating System
Table 3.4: ITU’s Suggested Device Baseline and Enhanced Performance Criteria for a Single Eco-Rating System
Table 3.5: ITU’s Suggested Governance Model Baseline and Enhanced Performance Criteria for a Single Eco-Rating System
3.2.2 Phone Leasing Schemes
3.2.3 Phone Recycling
3.3 By the Book with Industry Associations
Figure 3.2: AsusTek’s Carbon Footprint Roadmap, incorporating ISO standards
3.3.1 Benefits and Limits to Collective Action
3.4 Partisan Practices from NGOs
3.5 The Stock Value of Environmentalism
Figure 3.3: CDP disclosure scores by industry quintile versus ROE, 2010-2012
3.5.1 Playing Chicken with Legislation
3.5.2 Costing Climate Change
3.6 Key Takeaways

4. Forecast Methodology & Energy Forecasts

4.1 Forecast Methodology
4.1.1 Handsets & Devices
Figure 4.1: Forecast Methodology – Handsets
i. Green Device Shipments
4.1.2 Lifecycle
i. Charging Forecasts
Figure 4.2: Forecast Methodology – Charging
ii. No-Load Forecasts
Figure 4.3: Forecast Methodology – No-Load Chargers
iii. Lifecycle Forecasts: Beyond the Use-Phase
Figure 4.4: Forecast Methodology – Lifecycle
4.1.3 Forecast Scenarios
4.1.4 Orders of Magnitude
Table 4.1: Orders of Magnitude
4.2 Energy Forecasts
4.2.1 Grid Connectivity
Table 4.2: Population (%) Connected to the Grid Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
4.2.2 Fossil Fuel Adoption
Table 4.3: Proportion of Total Energy (%) Produced using Fossil Fuels by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
4.2.3 Fossil Fuel GHG Emissions
Table 4.4: Average GHG Emissions (kg CO2e) per kWh from Fossil Fuels 2014-2019

5. Smartphone Forecasts

5.1 Smartphone Shipments
5.1.1 Total Shipments
Figure 5.1 & Table 5.1: Smartphone Shipments (m) per Annum Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
5.1.2 Green Smartphone Shipments
Table 5.2: Green Smartphone Shipments (%) as a Proportion of Total Smartphone Shipments per Annum Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
Figure 5.2 & Table 5.3: Green Smartphone Shipments (m) per Annum Split by 8 Key Regions 2014‑2019
5.2 Raw Material Extraction
Figure 5.3 & Table 5.4: Total GHG Emissions (Mt CO2e) from Smartphone Raw Material Extraction Split by Scenario 2014-2019
5.3 Component Manufacture
Figure 5.4 & Table 5.5: Total GHG Emissions (Mt CO2e) from Component Manufacture Split by Scenario 2014-2019
5.4 Device Assembly
Figure 5.5 & Table 5.6: Total GHG Emissions (Mt CO2e) from Device Assembly Split by Scenario 2014-2019
5.5 Transportation
Figure 5.6 & Table 5.7: Total GHG Emissions (Mt CO2e) from Transportation Split by Scenario 2014-2019
5.6 Supply Chain Analysis
Figure 5.7 & Table 5.8: Smartphone Supply Chain Cumulative GHG Emissions (Mt CO2e) Split by Stage & by Scenario 2014-2019
5.7 Installed Base
Figure 5.8 & Table 5.9: Installed Base (m) of Smartphones Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
i. Installed Base – Connectivity to the Grid
5.8 Consumer Use
5.8.1 Charging
i. Battery Capacity
ii. Charging Frequency
Table 5.10: Average Number of Full Charges per Device per Week of Smartphones Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
iii. Charging Energy
iv. Charging GHG Emissions
Figure 5.9 & Table 5.11: Total GHG Emissions (tonnes CO2e) from Charging Smartphones Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
5.8.2 No-Load Chargers
i. No-Load Consumption
ii. No-Load Time
Table 5.12: Average Time (hrs) Spent by Smartphone Power Adapter on No-Load per Week Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
iii. No-Load Energy
iv. No-Load GHG Emissions
Figure 5.10 & Table 5.13: Total GHG Emissions (tonnes CO2e) from Smartphone Chargers on No‑Load Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
5.9 Recycling
5.9.1 Recycled Smartphones
Figure 5.11 & Table 5.14: Smartphones Recycled per Annum (m) 2014-2019
5.9.2 Recycling Emissions
Figure 5.12 & Table 5.15: Total GHG Emissions (tonnes CO2e) from Smartphone Recycling Split by Scenario 2014-2019
5.10 Lifecycle Analysis
Figure 5.13 & Table 5.16: Total GHG Emissions (Mt CO2e) from Smartphones per Annum Split by Source 2014-2019

6. Featurephone Forecasts

6.1 Featurephone Shipments
6.1.1 Total Shipments
Figure 6.1 & Table 6.1: Featurephone Shipments (m) per Annum Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
6.1.2 Green Featurephone Shipments
Table 6.2: Green Featurephone Shipments (%) as a Proportion of Total Featurephone Shipments per Annum
Figure 6.2 & Table 6.3: Green Featurephone Shipments (m) per Annum
6.2 Raw Material Extraction
Figure 6.3 & Table 6.4: Total GHG Emissions (Mt CO2e) from Featurephone Raw Material Extraction Split by Scenario 2014-2019
6.3 Component Manufacture
Figure 6.4 & Table 6.5: Total GHG Emissions (Mt CO2e) from Featurephone Component Manufacture Split by Scenario 2014-2019
6.4 Device Assembly
Figure 6.5 & Table 6.6: Total GHG Emissions (Mt CO2e) from Featurephone Device Assembly Split by Scenario 2014-2019
6.5 Transportation
Figure 6.6 & Table 6.7: Total GHG Emissions (Mt CO2e) from Featurephone Transportation Split by Scenario 2014-2019
6.6 Supply Chain Analysis
Figure 6.7 & Table 6.8: Featurephone Supply Chain Cumulative GHG Emissions (Mt CO2e) Split by Stage & by Scenario 2014-2019
6.7 Installed Base
Figure 6.8 & Table 6.9: Installed Base (m) of Featurephones Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
i. Installed Base – Connectivity to the Grid
6.8 Consumer Use
6.8.1 Charging
i. Battery Capacity
ii. Charging Frequency
Table 6.10: Average Number of Full Charges per Device per Week of Featurephones Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
iii. Charging Energy
iv. Charging GHG Emissions
Figure 6.12 & Table 6.11: Total GHG Emissions (tonnes CO2e) from Charging Featurephones Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
6.8.2 No-Load Chargers
i. No-Load Consumption
ii. No-Load Time
Table 6.13: Average Time (hrs) Spent by Featurephone Power Adapter on No-Load per Week Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
iii. No-Load Energy
iv. No-Load GHG Emissions
Figure 6.13: Total GHG Emissions (tonnes CO2e) from Featurephone Chargers on No-Load Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
Table 6.14: Total GHG Emissions (tonnes CO2e) from Smartphone Chargers on No-Load by Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
6.9 Recycling
6.9.1 Recycled Featurephones
Figure 6.14: Featurephones Recycled per Annum (m)
6.9.2 Recycling Emissions
Figure 6.15 & Table 6.15: Total GHG Emissions (tonnes CO2e) from Featurephone Recycling Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
6.10 Lifecycle Analysis
Figure 6.16 & Table 6.16: Total GHG Emissions (Mt CO2e) from Featurephones per Annum Split by Source (2014-2019)

7. Tablet Forecasts

7.1 Tablet Shipments
7.1.1 Total Shipments
Figure 7.1 & Table 7.1: Tablet Shipments (m) per Annum Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
7.1.2 Green Tablet Shipments
Table 7.2: Green Tablet Shipments (%) as a Proportion of Total Tablet Shipments per Annum Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
Figure 7.2 & Table 7.3: Green Tablet Shipments (m) per Annum Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
7.2 Raw Material Extraction
Figure 7.3 & Table 7.4: Total GHG Emissions (Mt CO2e) from Tablet Raw Material Extraction Split by Scenario 2014-2019
7.3 Component Manufacture
Figure 7.4 & Table 7.5: Total GHG Emissions (Mt CO2e) from Tablet Component Manufacture Split by Scenario 2014-2019
7.4 Device Assembly
Figure 7.5 & Table 7.6: Total GHG Emissions (Mt CO2e) from Tablet Device Assembly Split by Scenario 2014-2019
7.5 Transportation
Figure 7.6 & Table 7.7: Total GHG Emissions (Mt CO2e) from Tablet Transportation Split by Scenario 2014-2019
7.6 Supply Chain Analysis
Figure 7.7 & Table 7.8: Tablet Supply Chain Cumulative GHG Emissions (Mt CO2e) Split by Stage & by Scenario 2014-2019
7.7 Installed Base
Figure 7.8 & Table 7.9: Installed Base (m) of Tablets Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
i. Installed Base – Connectivity to the Grid
7.8 Consumer Use
7.8.1 Charging
i. Battery Capacity
ii. Charging Frequency
Table 7.10: Average Number of Charges per Week for Tablets Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
iii. Charging Energy
iv. Charging GHG Emissions
Figure 7.9 & Table 7.11: Total GHG Emissions (tonnes CO2e) from Charging Tablets Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
7.8.2 No-Load Chargers
i. No-Load Consumption
ii. No-Load Time
Table 7.12: Average Time (hrs) Spent by Tablet Power Adapter on No-Load per Week Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
iii. No-Load Energy
iv. No-Load GHG Emissions
Figure 7.10 & Table 7.13: Total GHG Emissions (tonnes CO2e) from Tablet Chargers on No-Load Split by 8 Key Regions 2014-2019
7.9 Recyclying
7.9.1 Recycled Tablets
Figure 7.11 & Table 7.14: Tablets Recycled per annum (m) 2014-2019
7.9.2 Recycling Emissions
Figure 7.12 & Table 7.15: Total GHG Emissions (tonnes CO2e) from Tablet Recycling Split by Scenario 2014-2019
7.10 Lifecycle Analysis
Figure 7.13 & Table 7.16: Total GHG Emissions (Mt CO2e) from Tablets per Annum Split by Source 2014-2019

8. Vendor Analysis

8.1 Introduction
8.2 Vendor Analysis
8.2.1 Introduction
8.2.2 Vendor Assessment Methodology
Table 8.1: Vendor Capability Assessment Criteria
8.2.3 Limitations and Interpretation
8.2.4 Vendor Assessment Results
8.3 Apple
Figure 8.1: Apple – Environmental Footprint
Figure 8.2: Apple’s Solid Waste per Employee (tonnes)
Table 8.1: iPhone Lifecycle Emissions (Proportions)
Table 8.2: iPhone Lifecycle Emissions (Calculated)
Table 8.3 iPad Lifecycle Emissions (Proportions)
Table 8.4: iPad Lifecycle Emissions (Calculated)
8.4 BlackBerry
Figure 8.3: Proportion of Upstream GHGs, Water and Waste Generated by BlackBerry’s Top 10 and Top 100 Suppliers
Figure 8.4: Lifecycle Emissions for BlackBerry Torch 9810 and BlackBerry Playbook
8.5 HTC
Figure 8.5: HTC One Lifecycle Emissions
8.6 Huawei
Figure 8.6: Huawei Cooling Case Study
Figure 8.7: Huawei’s Global Supplier Base, by Region
Figure 8.8: Huawei U8652 Lifecycle GHG Emissions
8.7 LG Electronics
Figure 8.9: LG mobile product lifecycle assessment
8.8 Motorola Mobility
Table 8.7: Total Company Facilities Emissions by Scope (tonnes CO2e)
Table 8.8: Motorola Facilities Waste (tonnes)
Figure 8.10: Droid Smartphone and Tablet Lifecycle Emissions
8.9 Nokia
Figure 8.11: Nokia Device Lifecycle Emissions
Table 8.9: Total Company Facilities Emissions by Scope (tonnes CO2e)
8.10 Samsung
Figure 8.12: Samsung – Environmental Footprint
Table 8.10: Total Company Facilities Emissions by Scope (Kilotonnes CO2e)
Figure 8.13: Samsung Galaxy Note2 Lifecycle Emissions (Proportions)
Table 8.11: Samsung Galaxy Note2 Lifecycle Emissions (Calculated)
8.11 Sony Mobile
Figure 8.14: Sony’s 2015 environmental targets
Figure 8.15: Structural overview of a returnable container
Figure 8.16: Sony’s PDCA Cycle
Table 8.12: Sony Total Company Facilities Emissions by Scope (tonnes CO2e)

Companies Referenced

Interviewed: Electronics Takeback Coalition, Greenpeace, Huawei, Motorola, Nokia, Sony, Vodafone.

Profiled: Apple, BlackBerry, HTC, Huawei, LG, Motorola, Nokia, Samsung, Sony.

Case Studied: Fairphone, Google, Molycorp, TSMC (Taiwan Semiconductor Company).

Mentioned:
Accenture, ASUSTek, AT&T, Bloomberg, Carbon Fund, CDP (Carbon Disclosure Project), CDIAC, Ceres, Changhong, Closing the Loop, CTIA, Eco Hatchery, EICC (Electronics Industry Citizenship Council), EnergySTAR, EPEAT, Ericsson, Facebook, Fraunhofer IZM, Friends of the Earth, Germanwatch, Global Investor Coalition, GeSI (Global e-Sustainability Initiative), Green Electronics Council, Greenbiz Group, Green Grid, GSMA, HP, IFixIt, Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs, Ilka, Intel, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, International Energy Agency, ISO (International Standards Organisation), ITU (International Telecommunications Union), Lattice Semiconductor, Lenovo, MediaTek, O2, OECD, PE International, Sharp, SoSo Limited, Sprint, TAOS Network, Telefónica, T-Mobile, UL, Usablenet, Verizon, World Bank, WWF, Xanomi, XKCD.

Extra Info

◊8 Key Regions include: North America; Latin America; Western Europe; Central & Eastern Europe; Far East & China; Indian Subcontinent; Rest of Asia Pacific and Africa & Middle East.

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Key Questions

•    How sustainable is the mobile device market currently?
•    What changes are on the horizon for the industry to make it more sustainable?
•    How much emissions will mobile devices generate by 2019, and where will they come from?
•    What are the current limits to increasing mobile sustainability?
•    How can vendors use sustainability as a brand and product asset?
•    How do the different stakeholder groups need to be engaged to enhance a company’s environmental performance?

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